The environmental issue of urban air pollution in developed countries

Traffic pollution, Delhi Source Introduction Together with many social and economic benefits of urbanization, there are also environmental problems.

The environmental issue of urban air pollution in developed countries

For more information about the dirty dozen, see table below. These are the chemicals initially addressed by the Stockholm Convention when negotiated. Since that time, other chemicals have been added to the Convention.

Although most developed nations have taken strong action to control POPs, a great number of developing nations have only fairly recently begun to restrict their production, use, and release.

The Stockholm Convention adds an important global dimension to our national and regional efforts to control POPs.

Though the United States is not yet a Party to the Stockholm Convention, the Convention has played a prominent role in the control of harmful chemicals on both a national and global level. For example, EPA and the states have significantly reduced the release of dioxins and furans to land, air, and water from U.

In addition to the POPs-related agreements the United States has taken part in signing, the United States has also provided ample financial and technical support to countries across the globe supporting POPs reduction.

A few of these initiatives include dioxin and furan release inventories in Asia and Russia, and the reduction of PCB sources in Russia. Many POPs were widely used during the boom in industrial production after World War II, when thousands of synthetic chemicals were introduced into commercial use.

Many of these chemicals proved beneficial in pest and disease control, crop production, and industry. These same chemicals, however, have had unforeseen effects on human health and the environment. POPs include a range of substances that include: Intentionally produced chemicals currently or once used in agriculture, disease control, manufacturing, or industrial processes.

Examples include PCBs, which have been useful in a variety of industrial applications e. Unintentionally produced chemicals, such as dioxins, that result from some industrial processes and from combustion for example, municipal and medical waste incineration and backyard burning of trash.

An estimated 4 billion pounds of this inexpensive and historically effective chemical have been produced and applied worldwide since In the United States, DDT was used extensively on agricultural crops, particularly cotton, from to DDT was also used to protect soldiers from insect-borne diseases such as malaria and typhus during World War II, and it remains a valuable public health tool in parts of the tropics.

International Cooperation

The heavy use of this highly persistent chemical, however, led to widespread environmental contamination and the accumulation of DDT in humans and wildlife - a phenomenon brought to public attention by Rachel Carson in her book, Silent Spring.

A wealth of scientific laboratory and field data have now confirmed research from the s that suggested, among other effects, that high levels of DDE a metabolite of DDT in certain birds of prey caused their eggshells to thin so dramatically they could not produce live offspring.

One bird species especially sensitive to DDE was the bald eagle. The bald eagle has since experienced one of the most dramatic species recoveries in our history.

The environmental issue of urban air pollution in developed countries

Transboundary Travelers Global Dust: This figure shows a satellite image of the passage of a cloud of dust across the Pacific Ocean to North America. This dust cloud was raised by a storm in Asia in April Also shown is a dust cloud from northern Africa traveling west over the Atlantic Ocean.

A major impetus for the Stockholm Convention was the finding of POPs contamination in relatively pristine Arctic regions - thousands of miles from any known source. Much of the evidence for long-range transport of airborne gaseous and particulate substances to the United States focuses on dust or smoke because they are visible in satellite images.

Tracing the movement of most POPs in the environment is complex because these compounds can exist in different phases e. For example, some POPs can be carried for many miles when they evaporate from water or land surfaces into the air, or when they adsorb to airborne particles.

Then, they can return to Earth on particles or in snow, rain, or mist. POPs also travel through oceans, rivers, lakes, and, to a lesser extent, with the help of animal carriers, such as migratory species.

For example, none of the original POPs pesticides listed in the Stockholm Convention is registered for sale and distribution in the United States today and inCongress prohibited the manufacture of PCBs and severely restricted the use of remaining PCB stocks.

In addition, sinceEPA and the states have effectively reduced environmental releases of dioxins and furans to land, air, and water from U. These regulatory actions, along with voluntary efforts by U.

To better understand the risks associated with dioxin releases, EPA has been conducting a comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science and will be evaluating additional actions that might further protect human health and the environment.

After studying the persistence of DDT residues in the environment, the U. The remaining exempted uses public health use for controlling vector-borne diseases, military use for quarantine, and prescription drug use for controlling body lice are voluntarily stopped.

There is no U. Controlling Dioxins EPA has pursued regulatory control and management of dioxins and furans releases to air, water, and soil. The Clean Air Act requires the application of maximum achievable control technology for hazardous air pollutants, including dioxins and furans.

Major sources regulated under this authority include municipal, medical, and hazardous waste incineration; pulp and paper manufacturing; and certain metals production and refining processes.

Dioxin releases to water are managed through a combination of risk-based and technology-based tools established under the Clean Water Act. Studies have linked POPs exposures to declines, diseases, or abnormalities in a number of wildlife species, including certain kinds of fish, birds, and mammals.Environmental problems of the developed countries.

Author: Fisher JL. Developed countries have been experiencing quite rapid increases in severe environmental problems.

The environmental issue of urban air pollution in developed countries

Industrialization, population growth, and urbanization have intensified environmental pollution in these countries.

Other effects are congestion, noise, . Urban environmental problems are mostly inadequate water supply, wastewater, solid waste, energy, loss of green and natural spaces, urban sprawl, pollution of soil, air, traffic, noise, etc.

All these problems are particularly serious in developing countries and countries with economic transition, where there is a conflict between the short. M E A T Now, It’s Not Personal! But like it or not, meat-eating is becoming a problem for everyone on the planet.

Ask people where they’d rank meat-eating as an issue of concern to the general public, and most might be surprised to hear you suggest that it’s an issue at all. This page was created: to raise awareness about the health and environmental impacts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), to show what actions the United States and some other countries have already taken to address these pollutants, and.

Transportation-related air pollution, which is a significant contributor to total urban air pollution, increases the risks of cardiopulmonary-related deaths and non-allergic.

Environmental Awareness - Naturalist Intelligence Environment is the area in which we live and ashio-midori.com thin layer of air that surrounds our planet that supports ashio-midori.com are the only kind of life that we know of that exists in our universe.

If we did not have our environment we could not exist.

WHO | The urban environment